Is it possible to have a food system that utilizes ecosystem services while remaining profitable? To find out, the TRANSECO project investigates agroecological farming, where farmers reduce the use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers, replacing them with enhanced ecosystem services. The project compares the economics and ecology of 15 farms using agroecological principles and 15 conventional farms in Sweden. The question at hand is whether it yields an equal or even greater effect for the farmer to work the land less to increase its fertility.